Diabetes type 1 happens when your immune system destroys cells in your pancreas called beta cells. They’re the ones that make insulin.
Some people get a condition called secondary diabetes. It’s similar to type 1, except the immune system doesn’t destroy your beta cells.They’re wiped but by something else, like a disease or an injury to your pancreas.
What does insulin do?
Insulin is a hormone that helps move sugar or glucose, into your body’s tissues. Cell use it as fuel.
Damage to beta cells from Diabetes Type 1 throws the process off. Glucose doesn’t move into your cells because insulin isn’t there to do it builds up in your blood and your cells starve. This causes high blood sugar, such as:
When there’s extra sugar in your blood, you will pee more. That’s your body’s way of getting rid of it. A large amount of water goes out with the urine, causing your body dry out.
2. Weight loss
The glucose that goes out when you pee takes calories with it. That’s why many people with high blood sugar lose weight. Dehydration also plays a part.
3. Diabetic ketoacidosis(DKA)
If your body can’t get enough glucose for fuel, it will breaks down fat cells instead. This creates chemicals called ketones. Your liver releases the sugar it stores to help out. But your body can’t use it without insulin, so it builds up in your blood, along with the acid ketones. This combination of extra glucose, dehydration and acid build up is known as “ketoacidosis” and can be life-threatening if not treated right away.
4. Damage to your body
Over time, high glucose levels in your blood can harm the nerves and small blood vessels in your eyes, kidneys and heart. They can also make you more likely to get hardening of the arteries or atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart attacks and strokes.
Who gets Diabetes Type 1?
That’s rare. Only about 5% of people with diabetes type 1. This is more common whites than in African-American. It effects men and women alike. Although the disease usually begins in people under the age 20, it can occur at any age.
What causes Diabetes Type 1?
Doctors don’t know all the things that lead diabetes type 1. But they do know your genes play a role.
They also know diabetes type 1 can result when something in the environment, like a virus, tells your immune system to go after your pancreas. Most people with diabetes type 1 have signs of this attack, called auto antibodies. They’re present in almost everyone who has condition when their blood sugar is high.
Diabetes type 1 can happen along with other autoimmune diseases, like Grave’s disease or vitiligo.
What are the symptoms of Diabetes Type 1?
1. Heavy thirst
2. Increased hunger(especially after eating)
3. Dry mouth
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Pain in your belly
6. Frequent urination
7. Unexplained weight loss
9. Blurred vision
10. Heavy, labored breathing
11. Frequent infections of the skin
Signs of an emergency with diabetes type 1 include:
1. Shaking and confusion
2. Rapid breathing
3. Fruity smell to your breath
4. Pain in your belly
5. Loss of consciousness (rare)